| 1,2-Dichloroethane has been consistently demonstrated to be genotoxic
in numerous in vitro and in vivo assays for a wide range of end-points. It has been mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium, especially in the presence of an exogenous activation system (Milman et al., 1988; Barber et al., 1981; Moriya et al., 1983 ) , and induces unscheduled DNA synthesis (Williams et al., 1989; Milman et al., 1988), induces gene mutation (,Tan & Hsie, 1981) and forms adducts
with DNA in mammalian cells in vitro (Banerjee, 1988). It binds to DNA in all reported in vivo studies in rats and mice (Prodi et al., 1986). 1,2-Dichloroethane has also induced somatic cell and sex-linked
recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila (Nylander et al., 1978; Kramers et al., 1991). Available data on genotoxicity are consistent with the hypothesis that the glutathione pathway of conjugation (i.e. production of the glutathione episulfonium ion) is probably of greater
significance than the P-450 pathway as the major route for DNA damage (Guengerich et al., 1980; Rannug, 1980; Sundheimer et al., 1982; Inskeep et al., 1986; Koga et al., 1986; Simula et al., 1993); mutation frequency in human cell lines has been correlated with
variations in levels of glutathione- S-transferase activities (Crespi et al., 1985).
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